Date: August 25, 2022
Availability of Home Health, Hospice, and Pharmacy Services in Minoritized Racial/Ethnic Group Areas
This series of briefs documents disparities in geographic access to health services for ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) containing a high proportion of minoritized racial/ethnic group (MRG) residents.
Availability of Home Health Services in Minoritized Racial/Ethnic Group Areas
- In the U.S., home health agency reporting services are not available in 5.9% of all ZCTAs and an additional 10.3% of ZCTAs receive services from a single agency.
- In 2020, 10.3% of all rural ZCTAs and 2.2% of all urban ZCTAs lacked home health service access. As a ZCTA becomes more rural and remote, these communities are more likely to lack any home health care or have limited service.
- Within rural ZCTAs in the top 5th percent for minoritized population group representation, non-Hispanic Black representation was less likely to lack all home health services and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native representation was more likely to lack all home health services when compared to “all other” rural ZCTAs.
Availability of Medicare-Certified Hospice Services in Minoritized Racial/Ethnic Group Areas
- Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services-certified hospice providing services are not available in 5.6% of ZCTAs and 14.2% are served by a single hospice.
- In 2020, 2.4% of all urban ZCTAs had no service while 9.4% of all rural ZCTAs had no service.
- Within rural ZCTAs in the top 5th percent for minoritized population group representation, American Indian/Alaska Native (32.6%), Asian American/Pacific Islander (12.9%), non-Hispanic white (24.7%), and multiple MRG groups (23.1%) were each more likely than “all other” rural ZCTAs to lack any hospice service (4.5%).
Availability of Pharmacies in Minoritized Racial/Ethnic Areas
- The mean density of pharmacies across rural ZCTAs was 1.2 pharmacies per 10,000 persons. The mean density of pharmacies across urban ZCTAs was 1.7 pharmacies per 10,000 persons.
- The lowest density of pharmacies across rural-urban MRG designation was found in rural Hispanic ZCTAs.
Janice C. Probst, PhD
Rural and Minority Health Research Center
Additional Resources of Interest:
- More information about the Rural and Minority Health Research Center
More information from the Rural Health Information Hub’s topic guides: Healthcare Access in Rural Communities, Rural Home Health Services, Rural Hospice and Palliative Care, Rural Pharmacy and Prescription Drugs